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Overview of titanium alloy spring applications
Foreign countries attach great importance to the research of new ultra-high-strength titanium alloys for springs and fasteners. Representatively, TIMET has developed Ti- 6V-6M o- 5.17Fe- for the application of ultra-high-strength fasteners on aircraft frames and engines. 2.17Al (TIMETAL125) alloy. The index requires its strengthened tensile strength of 1586MPa, shear strength of 860MPa, and elongation of 7%. According to the published data, the performance of the alloy is insufficient compared with the index requirements, but there is no relevant application report. In order to reduce costs, the United States has developed a low-cost β-titanium alloy Timetal LCB through the use of low-cost ferromolybdenum master alloys in the smelting process. Its nominal composition is Ti- 4.5Fe-6.8Mo -1.5Al. Because fatigue is one of the important indicators of spring materials, Timetal LCB has excellent comprehensive properties in terms of strength, ductility, fatigue resistance, etc., the tensile strength after age hardening is above 1500MPa, smooth specimens (K t = 1 The fatigue limit of) is close to 1 000MPa, so it is suitable for making springs. The alloy can be hot rolled, TimetalLCB The performance ratio of titanium alloy springs to steel springs, under the same allowable stress, the biggest advantage of using titanium alloy springs is weight reduction. Timetal LCB titanium alloy is a special alloy specially designed for automobile springs. It is the most representative high-strength beta titanium alloy for non-aerospace applications. Its most important application is automobile springs. The alloy has the characteristics of low density, small modulus of elasticity, and corrosion resistance. It does not require expensive cold processing and long-term aging treatment. It exhibits excellent corrosion resistance for automotive parts and does not require protective paint.
In recent years, titanium alloy springs have been better used in the automotive industry. The manufacture of automotive suspension springs, valve springs, and valves. The use of titanium alloys to make leaf springs can be comparable to high-strength steel with a tensile strength of 2 100 M Pa, and its own weight is reduced. 20%. The development of Ti-13V-11C-3Al and other alloys can be used for engine valve springs and suspension springs. Springs made of titanium have begun to be used in Formula One racing cars, racing motorcycles and the most advanced Ferrari cars. In the near future, light-duty vehicle engine valves, connecting rods, suspension springs, exhaust systems and fasteners will find more applications. Titanium and titanium alloys should have excellent physical and mechanical properties, can significantly improve performance and extend service life, and significantly reduce the quality of the chassis of automobile engines. No second material can be found in terms of material competitive value and superiority. Compared with steel and traditional automobile spring materials, titanium has the advantages of light weight, good corrosion resistance and low shear modulus. The titanium spring hardly rotates when it is used.
At present, the advantages of titanium alloy springs in the fields of aviation and aerospace, such as corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance, high strength, high elasticity, non-magnetic, low after-effect, and sensitivity, have been widely used. Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4M o-4Zr (β-C) alloys are widely used as springs. The quality of titanium springs is only 30% of that of steel springs, the number of coils can be reduced, and the volume is only half of that of steel springs. Β-type titanium alloy wire for aerospace, light weight, high strength and corrosion resistance. The US space shuttle has already adopted it. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good comprehensive properties, it has poor cold working performance, low strength, plasticity, toughness and hardenability. For this reason, a series of new structural titanium alloys have been developed. The beta titanium alloys that have developed rapidly in recent years are Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn. These two titanium alloys have been affected by their high structural benefits, reliability and good processing performance. The attention of the aviation community. The former is suitable for aerospace forgings and has been applied to Boeing 757, 737, A300, A320, F14, F18, BIB; the latter is excellent in cold workability and cold formability, suitable for making thin plates and strips, and can also be made Into forgings, bars and tubes, it has been used in aircraft nacelles, fasteners, hydraulic tubes, springs, helicopter rotors, etc. β-titanium alloy is an ideal choice for high-strength titanium springs due to its excellent comprehensive properties such as good cold and hot formability, obvious aging strengthening, and high corrosion resistance. The earliest practical beta titanium alloy was Ti-13V-11C r-3Al (Ti-13-11-3) alloy developed by the United States in the 1960s. McDonnell Douglas began to use cold-worked and aging Ti-13-11-3 alloy to manufacture springs in civil aircraft in the 1970s. Compared with steel springs, it has lower elastic modulus and density, about 70% weight reduction and 50% space saving. The initial commercial application of Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4M o-4Zr alloy was also aerospace springs. In the early and mid-1980s, Ti-38-6-44 (β-C) springs began to replace Ti-13- 11-3. From MD-11 to MD-80, McDonnell Douglas used about 300 Ti-13-11-3 parts and 150 Ti-38-6-44 parts, and all springs on C-17 were Ti- 38-6-44. Boeing is also gradually replacing stainless steel springs with Ti-38-6-44. Airbus A-330 and A-340 are equipped with springs made of this alloy, including the upper and lower lock springs of the landing gear, the door balance springs, and the springs for controlling the limit and flying height. The European Airbus A-330 and A-340 planes use β-C alloy springs (used in the strength range of 1 240 to 1 450 M Pa), and the American Boeing-777 planes are also equipped with β-C alloy springs.